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Financial Statements: List of Types and How to Read Them

notes to financial statements

Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are used to prepare financial statements. Both methods are legal in the United States, although GAAP is most commonly used. The main difference between the two methods is that GAAP is more “rules-based,” while IFRS is more “principles-based.” Both have different ways of reporting asset values, depreciation, and inventory, to name a few.

Alone, the balance sheet doesn’t provide information on trends, which is why you need to examine other financial statements, including income and cash flow statements, to fully comprehend a company’s financial position. Many articles and books on financial statement analysis take a one-size-fits-all approach. Less-experienced investors might get lost when they encounter a presentation of accounts that falls outside the mainstream of a so-called “typical” company. Please remember that the diverse nature of business activities results in a diverse set of financial statement presentations. This is particularly true of the balance sheet; the income statement and cash flow statement are less susceptible to this phenomenon. The financial statements used in investment analysis are the balance sheet, the income statement, and the cash flow statement with additional analysis of a company’s shareholders’ equity and retained earnings.

Understanding Footnotes to the Financial Statements

However, having positive cash flow doesn’t necessarily mean a company is profitable, which is why you also need to analyze balance sheets and income statements. An income statement, also known as a profit and loss (P&L) statement, summarizes the cumulative impact of revenue, gain, expense, and loss transactions for a given period. The document is often shared as part of quarterly and annual reports, and shows financial trends, business activities (revenue and expenses), and comparisons over set periods. The financial statement numbers don’t provide all of the disclosure required by regulatory authorities. Analysts and investors alike universally agree that a thorough understanding of the notes to financial statements is essential to properly evaluate a company’s financial condition and performance. As noted by auditors on financial statements “the accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.” Please include a thorough review of the noted comments in your investment analysis.

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However, excluding the impact of the GST increase, core inflation would have fallen by an estimated 0.6%-point in 2023 compared to 2022. Treasury plans to address any seasonal or unexpected variations in borrowing needs over the next quarter through changes in regular bill auction sizes and/or CMBs. Treasury plans to increase both the new issue and the reopening auction size of the 10-year note by $2 billion and the 30-year bond by $1 billion. Treasury plans to maintain the 20-year bond new issue and reopening auction size. For those aiming to succeed in finance, acquiring the expertise to read and understand footnotes is a skill that will distinguish you in your future profession.

notes to financial statements

Amid the declines in COE premiums since November and the larger COE supply this year compared to 2023, CPI-All Items inflation in 2024 is now forecast to be lower at 2.5–3.5%, down from the previous range of 3–4%. Excluding the effects of the increase in the GST rate, headline inflation is forecast at 1.5–2.5%. Your asset management source for ESG and sustainable investing, regulatory, notes to financial statements operational, and valuation news and trends. Let’s examine some sample types of disclosures from GE Healthcare’s Financial Statement for the year ended 2022. IAS 1 was reissued in September 2007 and applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The GAAP requires
you to disclose any subsequent events, the conditions of which existed before
the year ended.

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